Environmental isotope study on hydrodynamics of Lake Naini, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Environmental isotopes (delta O-18, deltaD and H-3) were used to understand the hydrodynamics of Lake Naini in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. The data was correlated with the in situ physico-chemical parameters, namely temperature, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen. The analysis of the data shows that Lake Naini is a warm monomictic lake [i.e. in a year, the lake is stratified during the summer months (March/April to October/November) and well mixed during the remaining months]. The presence of a centrally submerged ridge inhibits the mixing of deeper waters of the lake's two sub-basins, and they exhibit differential behaviour. The rates of change of isotopic composition of hypolimnion and epilimnion waters of the lake indicate that the water retention time of the lake is very short, and the two have independent inflow components. A few groundwater inflow points to the lake are inferred along the existing fractures, fault planes and dykes. In addition to poor vertical mixing of the lake due to the temperature-induced seasonal stratification, the lake also shows poor horizontal mixing at certain locations of the lake. The lake-groundwater system appears to be a flow-through type. Also, a tritium and water-balance model was developed to estimate the water retention time of well-mixed and hydrologically steady state lakes. The model assumes a piston flow of groundwater contributing to the lake. The developed model was verified for (a) Finger Lakes, New York; (b) Lake Neusiedlersee, Austria; and (c) Blue Lake, Australia based on literature data. The predicted water retention times of the lakes were close to those reported or calculated from the hydrological parameters given in the references. On application of this model to Lake Naini, a water retention time of similar to2 years and age of groundwater contributing to the lake similar to 14 years is obtained. Copyright (C) 2001 , Ltd.
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