Magnesium and strontium compositions of recent symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera
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Minor and trace elements in foraminiferal carbonates are potential paleo-proxies of climate, nutrient and seawater composition. There are very few reports of trace element composition of symbiont-bearing, larger foraminifera that are known to be important constituents of shallow-marine, modem and ancient carbonates. In this paper we examine the range of variation in Mg and Sr content of Recent species of these foraminifera from a lagoon of Lakshadweep Atoll (Indian Ocean) and Akajima Islands, Japan. Two hyaline species, Amphistegina lessonii and Neorotalia calcar,and two porcellaneous species, Antphisorus hentprichii and Marginopora vertebralis were collected live from Lakshadweep islands. Mg/Ca in these foraminifera is of an order of magnitude higher than the values reported for planktonic and symbiont-free benthic foraminifera. The Sr/Ca values are, however, comparable with the reported values in other foraminiferal taxa and they are found to vary within a narrow range. Electron-probe micro-analysis of three symbiont-bearing benthic species indicates spatial heterogeneity of high orders in Mg/Ca composition in all the species. The annual variation in temperature and pH of the lagoon water cannot explain the observed amplitude of the compositional variation. The photosynthesis and respiration of the symbionts and host foraminifera are possibly the major cause of compositional heterogeneity in individual tests, as has also been recently postulated for symbiont-bearing planktonic foraminiferal species. It highlights the need to isolate biological factors and necessitates species-specific paleotemperature scale in paleoclimatic analysis. We also analyzed delta(18)O, delta(13)C, Ca, Mg and Sr in carefully dissected chambers of a reef-dwelling, porcellaneous benthic foraminifer, Marginopora kudakajimaensis, collected live in four seasons. A moderate positive correlation is observed between Mg/Ca and temperature. However, large inter- and intra-test variation in Mg limits the precision of Mg/Ca as palaeotemperature proxy. The Sr/Ca of the test calcite is unrelated to temperature of the sea water. The delta(13)C of M. kudakajiniaensis does not correlate with delta(18)O, Mg/Ca or Sr/Ca. (c) 2005 Elsevier BX .
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