Analysis of angle stability problems: a transmission protection systems perspective
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Postfault rotor angle oscillations lead to power swings. Both unstable and stable swings can induce distance relay tripping. For unstable swings, a new computational procedure to locate all of the electrical centers is developed. It simplifies the work associated with visual screening of all the R-X plots. For stable swings, a generic three-tier hierarchy of stability-related norms defined by branch norm, fault norm, and system norm is proposed. Ranking by branch norm leads to ranking of power swings. Ranking by fault norm leads to ranking of faults or contingencies. Magnitude and rate of change of system norm can be used to detect an out-of-step condition. Results on a ten-machine system and a utility system with detailed models are also presented.
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