Experimental and theoretical challenges in the search for the quark-gluon plasma: the star collaboration's critical assessment of the evidence from rhic collisions

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Experimental and theoretical challenges in the search for the quark-gluon plasma: the star collaboration's critical assessment of the evidence from rhic collisions

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Title: Experimental and theoretical challenges in the search for the quark-gluon plasma: the star collaboration's critical assessment of the evidence from rhic collisions
Author: ADAMS, J; AGGARWAL, MM; AHAMMED, Z; AMONETT, J; ANDERSON, BD; ARKHIPKIN, D; AVERICHEV, GS; BADYAL, SK; BAI, Y; BALEWSKI, J; BARANNIKOVA, O; BARNBY, LS; BAUDOT, J; BEKELE, S; BELAGA, VV; BELLINGERI-LAURIKAINEN, A; BELLWIED, R; BERGER, J; BEZVERKHNY, BI; BHARADWAJ, S; BHASIN, A; BHATI, AK; BHATIA, VS; BICHSEL, H; BIELCIK, J; BIELCIKOVA, J; BILLMEIER, A; BLAND, LC; BLYTH, CO; BONNER, BE; BOTJE, M; BOUCHAM, A; BOUCHET, J; BRANDIN, AV; BRAVAR, A; BYSTERSKY, M; CADMAN, RV; CAI, XZ; CAINES, H; SANCHEZ, MCD; CASTILLO, J; CATU, O; CEBRA, D; CHAJECKI, Z; CHALOUPKA, P; CHATTOPADHYAY, S; CHEN, HF; CHEN, Y; CHENG, J; CHERNEY, M; CHIKANIAN, A; CHRISTIE, W; COFFIN, JP; CORMIER, TM; CRAMER, JG; CRAWFORD, HJ; DAS, D; DAS, S; DE MOURA, MM; DEDOVICH, TG; DEREVSCHIKOV, AA; DIDENKO, L; DIETEL, T; DOGRA, SM; DONG, WJ; DONG, X; DRAPER, JE; DU, F; DUBEY, AK; DUNIN, VB; DUNLOP, JC; MAZUMDAR, MRD; ECKARDT, V; EDWARDS, WR; EFIMOV, LG; EMELIANOV, V; ENGELAGE, J; EPPLEY, G; ERAZMUS, B; ESTIENNE, M; FACHINI, P; FAIVRE, J; FATEMI, R; FEDORISIN, J; FILIMONOV, K; FILIP, P; FINCH, E; FINE, V; FISYAK, Y; FU, J; GAGLIARDI, CA; GAILLARD, L; GANS, J; GANTI, MS; GEURTS, F; GHAZIKHANIAN, V; GHOSH, P; GONZALEZ, JE; GOS, H; GRACHOV, O; GREBENYUK, O; GROSNICK, D; GUERTIN, SM; GUO, Y; GUPTA, A; GUTIERREZ, TD; HALLMAN, TJ; HAMED, A; HARDTKE, D; HARRIS, JW; HEINZ, M; HENRY, TW; HEPPLEMANN, S; HIPPOLYTE, B; HIRSCH, A; HJORT, E; HOFFMANN, GW; HUANG, HZ; HUANG, SL; HUGHES, EW; HUMANIC, TJ; IGO, G; ISHIHARA, A; JACOBS, P; JACOBS, WW; JEDYNAK, M; JIANG, H; JONES, PG; JUDD, EG; KABANA, S; KANG, K; KAPLAN, M; KEANE, D; KECHECHYAN, A; KHODYREV, VY; KIRYLUK, J; KISIEL, A; KISLOV, EM; KLAY, J; KLEIN, SR; KOETKE, DD; KOLLEGGER, T; KOPYTINE, M; KOTCHENDA, L; KRAMER, M; KRAVTSOV, P; KRAVTSOV, VI; KRUEGER, K; KUHN, C; KULIKOV, AI; KUMAR, A; KUTUEV, RK; KUZNETSOV, AA; LAMONT, MAC; LANDGRAF, JM; LANGE, S; LAUE, F; LAURET, J; LEBEDEV, A; LEDNICKY, R; LEHOCKA, S; LEVINE, MJ; LI, C; LI, Q; LI, Y; LIN, G; LINDENBAUM, SJ; LISA, MA; LIU, F; LIU, H; LIU, L; LIU, QJ; LIU, Z; LJUBICIC, T; LLOPE, WJ; LONG, H; LONGACRE, RS; LOPEZ-NORIEGA, M; LOVE, WA; LU, Y; LUDLAM, T; LYNN, D; MA, GL; MA, JG; MA, YG; MAGESTRO, D; MAHAJAN, S; MAHAPATRA, DP; MAJKA, R; MANGOTRA, LK; MANWEILER, R; MARGETIS, S; MARKERT, C; MARTIN, L; MARX, JN; MATIS, HS; MATULENKO, YA; MCCLAIN, CJ; MCSHANE, TS; MEISSNER, F; MELNICK, Y; MESCHANIN, A; MILLER, ML; MINAEV, NG; MIRONOV, C; MISCHKE, A; MISHRA, DK; MITCHELL, J; MOHANTY, B; MOLNAR, L; MOORE, CF; MOROZOV, DA; MUNHOZ, MG; NANDI, BK; NAYAK, SK; NAYAK, TK; NELSON, JM; NETRAKANTI, PK; NIKITIN, VA; NOGACH, LV; NURUSHEV, SB; ODYNIEC, G; OGAWA, A; OKOROKOV, V; OLDENBURG, M; OLSON, D; PAL, SK; PANEBRATSEV, Y; PANITKIN, SY; PAVLINOV, AI; PAWLAK, T; PEITZMANN, T; PEREVOZTCHIKOV, V; PERKINS, C; PERYT, W; PETROV, VA; PHATAK, SC; PICHA, R; PLANINIC, M; PLUTA, J; PORILE, N; PORTER, J; POSKANZER, AM; POTEKHIN, M; POTREBENIKOVA, E; POTUKUCHI, BVKS; PRINDLE, D; PRUNEAU, C; PUTSCHKE, J; RAKNESS, G; RANIWALA, R; RANIWALA, S; RAVEL, O; RAY, RL; RAZIN, SV; REICHHOLD, D; REID, JG; REINNARTH, J; RENAULT, G; RETIERE, F; RIDIGER, A; RITTER, HG; ROBERTS, JB; ROGACHEVSKIY, OV; ROMERO, JL; ROSE, A; ROY, C; RUAN, L; RUSSCHER, M; SAHOO, R; SAKREJDA, I; SALUR, S; SANDWEISS, J; SARSOUR, M; SAVIN, I; SAZHIN, PS; SCHAMBACH, J; SCHARENBERG, RP; SCHMITZ, N; SEGER, J; SEYBOTH, P; SHAHALIEV, E; SHAO, M; SHAO, W; SHARMA, M; SHEN, WQ; SHESTERMANOV, KE; SHIMANSKIY, SS; SICHTERMANN, E; SIMON, F; SINGARAJU, RN; SMIRNOV, N; SNELLINGS, R; SOOD, G; SORENSEN, P; SOWINSKI, J; SPELTZ, J; SPINKA, HM; SRIVASTAVA, B; STADNIK, A; STANISLAUS, TDS; STOCK, R; STOLPOVSKY, A; STRIKHANOV, M; STRINGFELLOW, B; SUAIDE, AAP; SUGARBAKER, E; SUIRE, C; SUMBERA, M; SURROW, B; SWANGER, M; SYMONS, TJM; DE TOLEDO, AS; TAI, A; TAKAHASHI, J; TANG, AH; TARNOWSKY, T; THEIN, D; THOMAS, JH; TIMOSHENKO, S; TOKAREV, M; TRENTALANGE, S; TRIBBLE, RE; TSAI, OD; ULERY, J; ULLRICH, T; UNDERWOOD, DG; VAN BUREN, G; VAN LEEUWEN, M; VANDER MOLEN, AM; VARMA, R; VASILEVSKI, IM; VASILIEV, AN; VERNET, R; VIGDOR, SE; VIYOGI, YP; VOKAL, S; VOLOSHIN, SA; WAGGONER, WT; WANG, F; WANG, G; WANG, XL; WANG, Y; WANG, ZM; WARD, H; WATSON, JW; WEBB, JC; WESTFALL, GD; WETZLER, A; WHITTEN, C; WIEMAN, H; WISSINK, SW; WITT, R; WOOD, J; WU, J; XU, N; XU, Z; XU, ZZ; YAMAMOTO, E; YEPES, P; YUREVICH, VI; ZBOROVSKY, I; ZHANG, H; ZHANG, WM; ZHANG, Y; ZHANG, ZP; ZOULKARNEEV, R; ZOULKARNEEVA, Y; ZUBAREV, AN
Abstract: We review the most important experimental results from the first three years of nucleus-nucleus collision studies at RHIC, with emphasis on results from the STAR experiment, and we assess their interpretation and comparison to theory. The theory-experiment comparison suggests that central Au + Au collisions at RHIC produce dense, rapidly thermalizing matter characterized by: (1) initial energy densities above the critical values predicted by lattice QCD for establishment of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP); (2) nearly ideal fluid flow, marked by constituent interactions of very short mean free path, established most probably at a stage preceding hadron formation; and (3) opacity to jets. Many of the observations are consistent with models incorporating QGP formation in the early collision stages, and have not found ready explanation in a hadronic framework. However, the measurements themselves do not yet establish unequivocal evidence for a transition to this new form of matter. The theoretical treatment of the collision evolution, despite impressive successes, invokes a suite of distinct models, degrees of freedom and assumptions of as yet unknown quantitative consequence. We pose a set of important open questions, and suggest additional measurements, at least some of which should be addressed in order to establish a compelling basis to conclude definitively that thermalized, deconfined quark-gluon matter has been produced at RHIC. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.03.085
http://dspace.library.iitb.ac.in/xmlui/handle/10054/13902
http://hdl.handle.net/100/3102
Date: 2005


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