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|Title: ||Numerical modelling and experimental determination of temperature distribution during manual metal arc welding|
|Authors: ||MURUGAN, S|
|Issue Date: ||1999|
|Publisher: ||I O M COMMUNICATIONS LTD INST MATERIALS|
|Citation: ||SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF WELDING AND JOINING, 4(6), 357-364|
|Abstract: ||Welding is a highly reliable and efficient metal joining process. Manual metal are (MMA) welding is very widely used in industry. The temperature distribution that occurs during welding affects the material microstructure, hardness, and the residual stresses present in the material after welding. In the present work, the temperature distribution during bead on plate welding using MMA welding was experimentally determined for AISI type 304 stainless steel plates and low carbon steel plates of thickness 6 and 12 mm. A three-dimensional computer model based on the control volume method has been developed to predict the temperature distribution in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and in the base plate region of the bead on plate welds, using the weld parameters as input data to the computer model. In this computer model, the heat energy used to melt the electrode is considered as a separate heat flux term and the remaining heat supplied by the welding arc is considered as another heat flux term. A good match between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained, Using the computer model, the time taken to cool from 800 to 500 degreesC in the coarse grained HAZ (close to the fusion line) of low carbon steel specimens was calculated. From this cooling time and the chemical composition of the material, the maximum hardness in the coarse grained HAZ was predicted. Microhardness measurement in the same region of the welded plates was carried out. The experimentally measured values and predicted results match closely.|
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