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|Title:||METAL CONTAMINATION DUE TO MINING AND MILLING ACTIVITIES AT THE ZAWAR ZINC MINE, RAJASTHAN, INDIA .2. DISPERSION IN FLOODPLAIN SOILS OF STREAM|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV|
|Citation:||CHEMICAL GEOLOGY, 112(3-4), 293-307|
|Abstract:||The Tiri river carrying mine discharges and milling effluents frequently inundates its floodplains. Fresh deposition of metal-contaminated sediments is mixed with the top soils by ploughing and biological activity, and has caused a considerable increase in the heavy-metal concentration of top soil. Samples collected from the top soils on the floodplain have been analysed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe and Mn to recognize the extent of contamination and geochemical process of dispersion. With the help of simple statistics and curvilinear regression analysis a distance-decline pattern in levels of heavy metals on the floodplain soils is recognised. Correlation matrix and R-mode factor analyses of normalised soil metal data have been used to study the relationship among the different geochemical pools taking up metals in the soil. The R I factor indicates contribution from gross lithology of the terrain and association of Cu with this factor advocates it to be autochthonous. Pb-Zn-Cd with minor contribution from Fe-Mn-Cu in the R II factor are considered to be input from mine discharges. Atmospheric dust fallout and flash flooding of the river bank are the two factors contributing metals to the top soil. ''Easily exchangeable'', ''carbonate-bound'', ''reducible'' (bound to multiple hydroxides of Fe and Mn), ''oxidisable'' (organically bound and sulphidic) and ''lithogenic phase'' are the five operationally defined geochemical pools into which the heavy metals are positioned in the soil. Scavenging capacities (SC's) of these geochemical pools have been estimated for each heavy metal and competition ratios (CR's) are computed to examine the relative affinity of the metals for the above-mentioned pools. The reducible phase for Pb, and organics for Zn and Cu, and carbonates for Cd are found to be the dominant sinks in the floodplain soils.|
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