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|Title: ||Biotransformation of nitrophenols in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors|
|Authors: ||KARIM, K|
|Keywords: ||uasb reactors|
|Issue Date: ||2001|
|Publisher: ||ELSEVIER SCI LTD|
|Citation: ||BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 80(3), 179-186|
|Abstract: ||Four identical bench-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, R1, R2, R3 and R4, were used to assess nitrophenols degradation at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT). Reactor RI was used as control, whereas R2, R3, and R4 were fed with 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), respectively. The concentration of each nitrophenol was gradually varied from 2 to 30 mg/l during acclimation. After acclimation reactors were operated under steady-state conditions at four different HRTs - 30, 24, 18, and 12 h, to study its effect on the removal of nitrophenols. Overall removal of 2-NP and 4-NP was always more than 99% but 2,4-DNP removal decreased from 96% to 89.7% as HRT was lowered from 30 to 12 h. 2-Aminophenol (2-AP), 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and 2-amino,4-nitrophenol (2-A,4-NP) were found to be the major intermediates during the degradation of 2-NP, 4-NP and 2,4-DNP, respectively. Out of the total input of nitrophenolic concentration (30 mg/l), on molar basis, about 41.2-48.4% of 2-NP, 59.4-68% of 4-NP, 30-26.6% of 2,4-DNP was recovered in the form of their respective amino derivatives at 30-12 h HRT. COD removal was 98-89%, 97-56%, 97-52%, and 94-46% at 30-12 h HRT for R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. Average cell growth was observed to be 0.15 g volatile suspended solid (VSS) per g COD consumed. Methanogenic inhibition was observed at lower HRTs (18 and 12 h), however denitrification was always more than 99% with non-detectable level of nitrite. The granules developed inside the reactors were black in color and their average size varied between 1.9 and 2.1 mm. (C) 2001 . .|
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