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|Title:||WOOD-TO-CHARCOAL CONVERSION IN A PARTIAL-COMBUSTION KILN - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY TO UNDERSTAND AND UPGRADE THE PROCESS|
|Citation:||FUEL, 71(8), 955-962|
|Abstract:||Commercial partial-combustion kilns (PCK) used in carbonization yield a mass efficiency of 15-30% (based on initial wet mass). The present process control of these kilns is tedious, subjective and difficult to generalize. The low yields not only accelerate deforestation but cause atmospheric pollution through smoke. This paper reports the findings of experimental research on a pilot PCK. The weight loss during carbonization, smoke characteristics (flow rate, temperature and chemical composition) and kiln temperatures were investigated to find a process parameter. Weight loss and smoke temperature (when kiln and chimney are insulated) can yield useful process parameters. Oxidation of the carbonization smoke is important in production of charcoal by PCK.|
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