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|Title: ||Influence of extrinsic factors on granulation in uasb reactor|
|Authors: ||TIWARI, MK|
|Issue Date: ||2006|
|Publisher: ||SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS|
|Citation: ||APPLIED PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY AND BIOFEEDBACK,31(2)145-154|
|Abstract: ||The aim of this mini-review is to synthesize and analyze information on how the process of granulation is affected by environmental and operational conditions in the reactor. The factors reviewed are temperature, pH, alkalinity, organic loading rate, upflow velocity, nature and strength of substrate, nutrients, multivalent cations and heavy metals, microbial ecology of seed sludge, exo-cellular polymer, and addition of natural and synthetic polymers. Careful temperature control and adequate alkalinity is required for generation and maintenance of granules. Nature and strength of substrate in conjunction with intra-granular diffusion to a large extent determines the microstructure of the granules. The divalent cations such as calcium and iron may enhance granulation by ionic bridging and linking exo-cellular polymers. However, their presence in excess may lead to cementation due to precipitation leading to increased ash content and mass transfer limitation. The addition of external additives such as ionic polymers may enhance granulation in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.|
|Appears in Collections:||Review|
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